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Tool steps and methods for identifying and appraising wood

by:Jinlon Furniture     2021-12-12
To accurately identify wood species or wood species, you must have the following three elements: one is to have advanced equipment and tools; the other is to master scientific filming and photo technology; the third is to use model wood specimens or authoritative materials correctly Wood identification reference book. These three elements are also called the trilogy of wood identification. It is now briefly introduced. Timber identification skills 1. Ascertain the source of the wood as much as possible. Whether the specimen is a domestic material or an imported material, it is best to find out which province or region the domestic material comes from; it is best to find out which region or country the imported material comes from, which can greatly narrow the search scope. 2. Identify the most important features of wood. In a comprehensive description of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of wood, it is necessary to find out the most important and prominent characteristics of the specimen. The macroscopic features mainly grasp the type of tube hole, the type of axial parenchyma, the thickness of wood rays, the presence or absence of heartwood and its color. The microscopic features mainly include the combination of pores, the type of pits between the catheters, the type of perforation, the content of the catheter; the presence or absence of resin channels and gum channels; whether wood rays are stacked, the number of rays, and the shape of ray cells; axial tracheids or wood Wood structure such as fiber cell wall pits and thread thickening. Extended reading: Tree species and classification of mahogany furniture materials. The first step is to have advanced instruments, tools and medicine. Wood slicing equipment and utensils. Slicing equipment: wood slicing machine and knife sharpener, which need to be purchased from professional manufacturers or distribution companies. Tools for wood slicing 1. Sampling tools Wood sampling tools mainly include saws, chisels, knives, and growth cones. Saws are mainly used for sampling logs, sawn timber, and wood-based panels, while growth cones and chisels are mainly used for sampling furniture and handicrafts. 2. Instruments for slicing Wood slicing instruments mainly include: water bath, electric stove; knife, single-sided blade; petri dish, dissecting needle, tweezers, writing brush, glass slide, cover glass, etc. The biological microphotographic system, stereo microscope, hand-held microscope, and magnifying glass for wood identification and identification must be purchased from professional manufacturers or distributors. Medicines for wood slicing The medicines for wood slicing mainly include: alcohol, glycerin, iron vitriol, safranin, clove oil, TO liquid, xylene, and neutral gum. Appliances and medicines can be bought in hardware stores or chemical stores. The second step is to master scientific filming and photo technology sampling methods 1. Log or sawn timber sampling: When sampling on logs or sawn timber, it is best to take the sample from the normal part of the growth ring near the junction of the heartwood and sapwood, and the general size It is 20mm×20mm×20mm. 2. Sampling of furniture or wooden crafts: Since furniture or wooden crafts are already a complete product, try to obtain small samples as far as possible while meeting the appraisal requirements to preserve the integrity and integrity of the furniture or wooden crafts. Aesthetics. Generally, samples are taken on the back or inner surface of furniture, the base of wooden crafts, etc. The size is 5mm×5mm×5mm. 3. Sampling of wood-based panels: According to the purpose of identification, if the panel material is to be identified, a 5mm×5mm sample should be cut from the panel. If the material for the core board is to be identified, a 5mm×5mm×5mm sample is cut from the core board. Extended reading: The third step of the seven major processes in the manufacture of mahogany furniture is to use model specimens or authoritative reference books model wood specimens correctly. The so-called model wood specimens refer to wood specimens that have been appraised and approved by relevant experts. It can be roughly divided into three categories: The first category is the specimens of trees (flowers, fruits, leaves) collected during the process of collecting wood specimens, and specimens identified by experts in tree classification. Most of the wood specimens collected by the Timber Institute of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the Forestry College of Guangxi University, Nanjing Forestry University, Beijing Forestry University, Northeast Forestry University and other forestry colleges belong to this type of specimen. The second category is the standard samples approved by the Organization for Standardization, for example: the GSB-16-2140-2007 imported timber national standard sample developed by the Zhangjiagang Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of Jiangsu Province. The third category is timber specimens that have passed import contracts and confirmed by relevant experts. Authoritative reference books or reference materials. At present, the most authoritative and applicable wood identification and identification reference books in China are: 'Chinese Timber' edited by Cheng Junqing et al.; 'Tropical Timber of Southeast Asia' and 'Tropical Timber of Africa' u200bu200bedited by Liu Peng et al.; Jiang Zehui, etc. 'Scientific Characteristics of Wood from Major Tree Species in the World' edited by Xu Feng et al. 'Timber Appraisal Atlas'Latin American Tropical Timber'; 'World Trade Timber Primary Color Illustrated Book' edited by Fang Chongrong and others. Timber species identification standards Timber identification standards refer to standards that have been approved by the Organization for Standardization. Such standards not only have descriptions of text characteristics, but also pictures of wood structures, especially pictures of wood microstructures. The standards that have been issued are: GB/T18107-2000 mahogany; GSB-16-2141-2007 national standard sample photos for imported timber; SN/T2026-2007 identification standards for the main timber species imported into the world. Search for coniferous wood by wood category: According to the resin road, the change from early wood to late wood, the number of rays, the cross-field pits, the thickening of the cell wall thread, etc., first check with the most significant features, and then until you find out Until the timber category or timber name. Broadleaf wood: First determine according to the type of tube hole, broadleaf ring porous wood, broadleaf semi-ring porous wood, broadleaf diffuse porous wood, broadleaf radiant porous wood, and broadleaf horizontal porous wood. Then according to the axial parenchyma type, wood beam type, number of rows, tube hole inclusions, stacked structure, gum channel and other characteristics. Check first with the most significant features, and then follow until the timber category or timber tree species is found. Finally, it is compared with the type specimens until the wood type or tree species is identified.
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