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The historical development characteristics of Chinese antique furniture

by:Jinlon Furniture     2022-03-18
my country has a long history of furniture. As early as the Shang Dynasty more than 3,000 years ago, there were already exquisite bronze and stone furniture. With the changes in people's living styles, furniture has also undergone a process of developing from a low shape to a high shape in accordance with people's needs. After the Song and Yuan Dynasties, my country's furniture art has developed into an excellent living appliance that combines a high degree of scientificity, artistry and practicality. It is not only cherished by the Chinese people, but also unique in the world of furniture, and enjoys a high reputation. Since there is very little information about furniture before Tang, we don't have any details. The Song Dynasty was an era of rational thinking. In philosophy, Song people chose Taoism, which respected nature, and Confucianism, which advocated order. Song people worked diligently to formulate the code, trying to figure out the clues in many aspects. For example, in the natural sciences, they summarized the 'Heavenly Creations' and formulated the 'Building Methods' in the field of architecture. In short, in the process of creating things, the calm Song people pursued order and law, and appreciated a neat and standardized beauty. The furniture of the Song Dynasty, in addition to some northern areas due to the influence of the feudal regimes of the late Tang Dynasty, still partly maintains the thick curve style of the late Tang Dynasty, most of the furniture of the Song Dynasty presents an extremely simple structure and an extremely simple and elegant decoration style in form. The degree of simplicity, most of them have reached the point where there is no reduction, and the reduction can be destroyed, thus reflecting the Song people's aesthetic concept of frugality and simplicity. Song dynasty furniture is mostly made up of straight parts. The appearance is pretty and straight. Between the linear parts, the beautiful proportions are often composed of rigorous scales and positions deliberately deliberately. This achieves an intrinsic and meaningful aesthetic effect. Especially the furniture in the Southern Song Dynasty, due to the influence of the southern bamboo culture, the cross-sectional dimensions of the components are often extremely large. Small, the overall proportion is graceful, elegant and beautiful. Although simplicity, neatness, elegance, and elegance were the main styles of Song Dynasty furniture, too many norms and conservative consciousness also restricted the development of Song Dynasty furniture, making it more rational and less enthusiastic. The uninhibited Mongolians created the Great Yuan Empire. The nomadic culture has always favored uninhibited lifestyles and complex visual experience. These social and cultural backgrounds, which are very different from the Song Dynasty, are bound to have an impact on Song style furniture. Transformation. At the same time, due to the closeness between regions and nationalities, the furniture of the Yuan Dynasty inherited part of the styles of Liao and Jin furniture and has developed more maturely. The main features of Yuan Dynasty furniture are: 1. Luo Guoxi was mature and widely used. 2. The appearance of the leg-spreading table and Bawangxi. 3. Like to use curve modeling. 4. A large number of applications of Japanese line type. 5. The prevalence of cloud head turning bead pattern. 6. Larger body size. 7. Xiongli carving style. The furniture of the Yuan Dynasty is thick and heavy, with full and varied shapes, complex carvings, and decorations with cloud heads, turning beads, Japanese horns and other linear shapes. There are varieties of shapes such as Luoguozi, and leg-extension. Generally speaking, they are magnificent, unrestrained, lively and vivid. A sense of abundance. The furniture craftsmanship of the Ming and Qing dynasties was highly developed and formed a distinctive style of the times. 'Ming-style furniture' and 'Qing-style furniture' have become professional academic terms. In addition to inheriting the fine traditions of the Song Dynasty, there are two important reasons why the furniture in the early Ming and Qing Dynasties can have high achievements: First, the Ming Dynasty’s social stability, economic prosperity, and the rise of cities and towns greatly increased the demand for furniture and craftsmanship. It also keeps improving; the second is the opening of the sea ban, and the import of a large number of hardwoods has made it possible for craftsmen to create exquisite and solid furniture that surpasses previous generations. Huanghuali, red sandalwood, chicken wing wood, iron wood, beech wood, gall wood, which are hard and dense, elegant in color and beautifully patterned, are the main materials for furniture in this period. In terms of styling, Ming-style furniture has many styles and changes frequently. On the surface, it seems that a craftsman can use it as he pleases and use it voluntarily to make beautiful objects. In fact, any style has quite strict rules. . 'Ming Dynasty furniture' has a broad sense and a narrow sense. The broad sense includes not only all furniture made in the Ming Dynasty, but also general miscellaneous wood, folk daily use, precious wood, and fine carvings. Even modern products can be called Ming-style furniture as long as they are in the style of the Ming Dynasty. In its narrow sense, it refers to furniture with fine materials and beautiful shapes from the early Qing Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty. The fine Ming-style furniture is elegant in shape and avoids vulgarity, and the structure is ingenious and reasonable. It makes full use of the natural texture of wood and has a natural and simple, profound and elegant artistic charm. The furniture of the Qing Dynasty took the Yong and Qianlong period as its heyday. During this period, there were many kinds of furniture, wide styles, high craftsmanship, and the most 'Qing style' style. In terms of decoration, this period strives to be gorgeous, and pays attention to combining with various other handicrafts, using different quality materials such as gold, silver, jade, coral, ivory, enamel, and inlays of treasures, pursuing gold, green, brilliance, and magnificence. Unfortunately, some of the furniture in this period was too cumbersome due to the excessive pursuit of luxury.
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