1. The origin of 'lacquer' The seal writing method of lacquer (lacquer) has a very long history. Archaeologists discovered a painted wooden bowl (sound xiu, refers to the lacquered utensils) at the Hemudu site. More than 7000 years. According to historical data, in the Neolithic period, the ancients had realized the performance of lacquer and used it to make utensils. The composition of the word 'lacquer' can also be proved: lacquer is derived from sumach (lacque tree), and the Chinese characters of all tree names are from the side of the wood, such as: pine, cypress, beech, poplar, etc., only the word 'lacquer' follows water. Because the sap will flow out from the trunk of this tree, it is called '桼': the upper part is from the wood, the middle from the person, and the lower part from the water, which vividly shows the relationship between the sumac tree, the person, and the lacquer. There is a saying in 'Zhuangzi·Ren Shijian': 'lacquer can be used, so cut it' is the earliest record of harvesting raw lacquer in China. Two: Chinese lacquer and Japanese lacquer (Chinese lacquer; Japan; Japanlac), also known as natural lacquer, raw lacquer, earth lacquer, and national lacquer. People in the past did not know the chemical principles used to make lacquer, but mastered the mystery of lacquer through continuous observation and practice. The lacquer liquid naturally secreted from the sumac tree will form a black shiny lacquer film after sun exposure, which attracted the attention of the ancients and wondered how to use it. Slowly, people learned to collect more lacquer from the lacquer tree, brush it on the utensils, and become the original lacquerware. The artificial cultivation of the sumac tree came into being. The 'Book of Songs' records: 'The Dingzhi Fang was made in the Chu Palace, the Kuzhi was made in the Chu room, and the trees were hazel, chestnut, tong, catalpa, and lacquer, Sumac has become an economic tree species. The characteristic of sumac is a deciduous tree with a height of up to 20 meters. The leaves are oval, yellow-green flowers bloom in early summer, and they become oblate in autumn. Lacquer trees are widely distributed in China, and the provinces surrounding the Sichuan Basin are their distribution centers. Because these areas have a mild climate, they are very suitable for the growth of lacquer trees. This is a small wood lacquer planted by hand. Cutting the lacquer requires climbing trees. Lacquer trees more than eight years old can produce lacquer. Lacquer farms use clam shells to cut the bark, insert the clam shells or bamboo slices under the knife edge, and collect the lacquer solution into the wooden barrel and seal it with oil paper for storage. The natural lacquer cut from the lacquer tree is called raw lacquer, and the cooked lacquer refers to the raw lacquer that has been oxidized with tung oil after being exposed to sunlight and stirring. The lacquer that has been flowing for about two hours has changed from milky white to chestnut shell color. The main component of the lacquer is urushiol. Others include gum, nitrogen, moisture, and a small amount of volatile acid. The freshly cut lacquer is milky white and viscous. After being exposed to air, the oxidized color gradually darkens, and finally becomes Chestnut shell. Raw lacquer is difficult to be mixed into bright color paint, because raw lacquer itself is deep in color, and when the pigment is added to it, it is easy to be conquered by the original color of raw lacquer, so the ancient lacquer is mostly black and vermilion. Collect the lacquer in a jar. 'The Zhumen's wine and meat are smelly, and the road has frozen bones.' The Zhumen door in Du Fu's poems was used exclusively by the government during the feudal period. In order to avoid suspicion, most ordinary people chose black lacquer. As the saying goes, 'Anyone who says nothing is darkAs for making the raw lacquer black, you can mix the iron rust water into the lacquer, and the iron oxide and urushiol will react with each other. After mixing it evenly, brush it on the object, as dark as ink. This black lacquer is also called black lacquer and black lacquer. Although the lacquer furniture
of Ming and Qing dynasties belonged to natural plant lacquer, some people would have skin allergies when they touched the wet lacquer, and even the smell of lacquer can cause a rash. In such a situation, the masters would say that they were 'bitten' by the lacquer. In fact, this is a lacquer allergy. Generally speaking, no special treatment is needed, and it will heal on its own in about seven days. The exquisite Japanese lacquer lacquer has a long history of application and is well-known at home and abroad. It has little impact on the environment, and has the effects of waterproofing, insect-proofing, sterilizing, and antiseptic. The lacquer has strong endurance to acidity, salt, and humidity. Its function can not only beautify, but also protect the utensils. It has always been regarded as the first choice of ideal paint. Therefore, the paint industry is very prosperous and enduring. Lacquerware and porcelain were regarded as symbols of Eastern civilization and then spread to Japan. Because Japanese people rely on lacquerware in their lives far more than other ethnic groups, Westerners call lacquerware 'Japan' and porcelain 'China'. '. The practice of treating chopsticks with lacquer is still very popular. The real challenge that lacquer faced in the 20th century. Due to the limitations of single-variety, low labor productivity, low mass production, and high cost of large lacquer, with the emergence of modern chemical coatings, the scope of application of large lacquer is getting narrower and narrower. Due to the cheap raw materials of chemical coatings, easy mass production, low cost, multiple functions, and wide applications, it has almost replaced this traditional coating that has been used for thousands of years.
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