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Tenon and tenon structure: introduction to T-shaped joint

by:Jinlon Furniture     2022-01-22
The connection between the legs and the legs of the large table or cabinet, the second is the intersecting of the armrests and the legs of the clothes rack or the official hat chair, or the cross of the stool, the foot of the chair and the chair. The intersecting legs and feet, as small as the circumference of the bed and the table with a few flowers, are all examples of T-shaped joints. 'Museum Collection' Ming and Qing furniture square T-shaped joints T-shaped joints are divided into round and square materials. The two methods are different. Let's first look at the T-shaped joint of round wood. If the horizontal and vertical lumber is the same thickness, the inner and outer skin of the lamella shall be the shoulder, and the tenon shall be left in the middle. If the legs and feet are thicker than the legs and feet, take the intersection of the legs and feet of the waistless stool as an example. The outer skin is the shoulder, and the tenon stays in the middle of the crescent-shaped round concave. In the case of a circle, take the intersection of the legs and legs of the armchair as an example. The outer skin of the armchair and the outer skin of the legs and feet are on the same plane. This kind of tenon has a large gap under the shoulder, which is called 'floating shoulder'. Because it resembles an open-mouthed toad, it is called 'toad shoulder' round timber T-shaped joint (horizontal and vertical timbers are equal in thickness) round timber T-shaped joint (thin horizontal timber, thick vertical timber, without cross skin) Circle) T-shaped joint of round wood (thin horizontal material, thick vertical wood, crossed skin, tenon and tenon with toad shoulder) T-shaped joint of square wood, generally using the crossed 'grid shoulder tenon'. It is divided into 'big grid shoulder' and 'small grid shoulder'. Extended reading: An analysis of the tenon and tenon structure of classical furniture in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. 'Large grid shoulder' is the so-called 'tip-pointing into the mao' in the small wooden work system of Song 'Building French Style'. 'Small grid shoulder' deliberately cut off the tip of the grid shoulder. In this way, you can cut a little bit less when making a hole on the vertical bar, so as to improve the firmness of the vertical bar. The square material T-shaped joint (small grid shoulder with tenon and tenon joint) is the same large grid shoulder, and there are two ways to make it with leather and without leather. The lattice shoulder part and the rectangular male tenon are attached to each other, which is the lattice shoulder tenon without leather clamping. It is also called 'solid shoulder'. The gap between the grid shoulder part and the male tenon is also a grid shoulder tenon with a clamp, which is also called a 'virtual tenon'. Because of the opening, the glue surface is enlarged for the leather with the clip, and it is stronger than the one without the leather. Square timber T-shaped joint (big grid shoulders and solid shoulders for tenon and tenon joints) Square T-shape joints (big grid shoulders and empty shoulders for tenon and tenon joints). The lines intersect. The tenon and tenon joints used, small grid shoulders, large grid shoulders, solid shoulders, and empty shoulders can all be seen in the examples. It should be pointed out that there are different ways to insert the straight tenon that is hidden by the straight material. Some two tenons are the same length, with the corners at the ends of the joints; some are one long and the other is short, with no corners, the long one is a penetrating rod, and the short one rests on the long tenon. Square timber T-shaped joint (two horizontal bars intersect with straight feet, large grid shoulders, empty shoulders, two joints with tenon grids) square timber T-shaped joints (two horizontal bars intersect with straight feet, large grid shoulders, virtual shoulders, The two mortise and tenon corners conflict each other.) T-shaped joints also have the so-called 'shoulders' method that does not require the shoulders. It is often used when the horizontal and vertical materials do not intersect one after another. Square timber T-shaped joint (tenon and tenon with shoulders) or used when the legs and feet are outside the circle and the shank is long, and they are also difficult to intersect. If the horizontal and vertical materials are both square and on a flat surface, then only rough furniture will be out of shoulders, and shoulders will be used. It is worth noting that most of the refined Ming and early Qing chairs use lattice shoulder tenon on all sides, the rougher ones use lattice shoulder tenon on the front, and the shoulders on the sides and back; the rougher ones use the shoulders on all four sides. From this we can see that in the minds of craftsmen, shoulder-to-shoulder is a simple and unappreciated method.
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