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Furniture material knowledge: classification of plastics

by:Jinlon Furniture     2022-02-15
Compared with traditional solid wood furniture, rattan furniture, iron furniture, etc., plastic furniture is a kind of furniture with new performance. It has bright colors, different shapes, light weight and compactness, wide application range, and convenient maintenance. It has become the favorite of consumers. In modern furniture, this new material is pressed into a chair through a model, or pressed into various films, which are used as the cover material for soft furniture, and there are also plastic hoses of various colors that are wound on steel pipes to form a soft chair. 1. Classification of plastics according to their use characteristics According to their different use characteristics, plastics can generally be divided into three types: general plastics, engineering plastics and special plastics. ①General-purpose plastics generally refer to plastics with large output, wide use, good formability, and low price. There are five types of general plastics, namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). They are all thermoplastics. ②Engineering plastics    generally refers to plastics that can withstand a certain external force, have good mechanical properties, high and low temperature resistance, and have good dimensional stability, and can be used as engineering structures, such as polyamide, polysulfone, etc. Engineering plastics are divided into general engineering plastics and special engineering plastics.   General engineering plastics include: polyamide, polyoxymethylene, polycarbonate, modified polyphenylene ether, thermoplastic polyester, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, methylpentene polymer, vinyl alcohol copolymer, etc. Special engineering plastics are divided into cross-linked and non-cross-linked types. Cross-linked types are: polyamino bismaleamide, polytriazine, cross-linked polyimide, heat-resistant epoxy resin and so on. Non-crosslinked types are: polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyimide, polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and so on. ③Special plastics generally refer to plastics with special functions that can be used in special applications such as aviation and aerospace. For example, fluoroplastics and silicones have outstanding high temperature resistance, self-lubricating and other special functions, and reinforced plastics and foamed plastics have special properties such as high strength and high cushioning. These plastics belong to the category of special plastics. a. Strong plastic: Reinforced plastic raw materials can be divided into granular (such as calcium plastic reinforced plastic), fibrous (such as glass fiber or glass cloth reinforced plastic), and flake (such as mica reinforced plastic) in appearance. According to the material, it can be divided into cloth-based reinforced plastics (such as rag reinforced or asbestos reinforced plastics), inorganic mineral filled plastics (such as quartz or mica filled plastics), and fiber reinforced plastics (such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics). b. Foamed plastics: Foamed plastics can be divided into three types: rigid, semi-rigid and flexible foams. Rigid foam has no flexibility, and its compression hardness is very large. It will deform only when it reaches a certain stress value and cannot return to its original state after the stress is relieved. Flexible foam is flexible, with low compression hardness, and is easy to deform. Restore the original state, the residual deformation is small; the flexibility and other properties of the semi-rigid foam are between the rigid and soft foams. 2. Classification of plastics according to their physical and chemical properties According to the different physical and chemical properties of various plastics, plastics can be divided into two types: thermosetting plastics and thermoplastic plastics. (1) Thermoplastics (Thermo plastics): refers to plastics that will melt after heating, can flow to the mold to cool and then form, and then melt again after heating; heating and cooling can be used to make reversible changes ( Liquid ←→solid) is the so-called physical change. General-purpose thermoplastics whose continuous use temperature is below 100°C. Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and polystyrene are also called the four general-purpose plastics. Thermoplastic plastics are divided into hydrocarbons, vinyls with polar genes, engineering, cellulose and other types. It becomes soft when heated, and becomes hard when cooled. It can be repeatedly softened and hardened and maintain a certain shape. It is soluble in certain solvents and has the property of being meltable and soluble. Thermoplastics have excellent electrical insulation, especially polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) have extremely low dielectric constant and dielectric loss, and it is suitable For high frequency and high voltage insulation materials. Thermoplastics are easy to mold and process, but have low heat resistance and are easy to creep. The degree of creep varies with load, environmental temperature, solvent, and humidity. In order to overcome these weaknesses of thermoplastics and meet the needs of applications in space technology and new energy development, all countries are developing heat-resistant resins that can be melted, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and polyether sulfone (PES). , Polyarylsulfone (PASU), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), etc.
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